Stem Cell Exhaustion
As we age, stem cells eventually lose their ability to divide. We are unable to replace the stem cells that have migrated, differentiated, or died. As a result, we show outward symbols of aging, such as grey hair.
One of the most obvious signs is the decline of regenerative potential of tissues. For example, decline of hematopoiesis (formation of blood cellular component) results in diminished production of adaptive immune cells, which increase the risk of anemia and myeloid malignancies. Stem cell exhaustion refers to the integrative consequence of multiple types of damage. In other words, stem cell exhaustion is a consequence of DNA damage, deregulated nutrient sensing, senescence and other processes. Therefore, environmental, genetic and microenvironmental factors all work together to affect stem cell fate.
Altered Intercellular Communication
Aging also involves changes at the level of intercellular communication – endocrine, neuroendocrine or neuronal, which ultimately contributes to decline in tissue health.
One example is immune cells senescence, which aggravate the aging phenotype at the systemic level, when the immune system failed to clear infectious agencies in the body. Furthermore, another function of an immune system is to recognize and eliminate senescent cells, so the silenced immune cells has a greater knockdown effect in the overall health. Like the decline in stem cell renewal, the age-dependent changes in intercellular communication are also integrated effects of the other hallmarks of aging. In particular, senescent cells trigger chronic inflammation that can further damage aging tissues.
Muscle Loss and Obesity
Stem cell formation decreases, muscle become smaller and causing the person grow weaker.
As a result of stem cell exhaustion, there are not enough new cells to repair muscle fibers. Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in adipose tissue, leads to cellular damage, and in time also leads to obesity. Obesity is directly related to an excessive ingestion of calories and fats from the diet and by an overwhelmed system incapable of properly metabolizing them.
Depression Irritability Insomnia
Gap junctions in the brain is the site of the intercellular membrane channels, which provide for direct cytoplasmic continuity between adjacent cells.
They span the plasma membranes of closely apposed cells to align end-to-end, forming intercellular channels small molecules exchange. Numerous studies have proven that gap junction dysfunction may contribute to the expression of the depressive-like symptoms, Irritability and Insomnia.
Stimulate PG to Increase Muscle Mass & Reduce Fat
The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland situated at the base of the brain. It regulates several physiological processes, including stress, growth, reproduction and lactation.
Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control blood pressure, management of energy, thyroid gland function and metabolism. For example, Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is particularly important in childhood growth. It is also used as a screening marker for growth hormone deficiency.
Improve Mood & Promote Deep Sleep
It is well-known that impaired neuron-neuron communication contributes to the development of depression.
Improving quality of sleep goes hand in hand with mood boosting. Insomnia makes depression worse and increases anxiety and irritability. Deep sleep enhances cellular communications, allow cell repair and other recovery reactions.